According to Beverage Marketing, Americans are consuming water in greater quantities than ever before, drinking 1.2 times more water than they were a decade ago. A common place many adults may rely on to quench their thirst is the office water cooler. These shared water coolers can become a breeding ground for harmful bacteria and other contaminants.
A study conducted by the Quebec Public Health Center found that 28% of the water dispenser samples from workplaces were contaminated by a least one coliform or indicator bacterium and or at least one pathogenic bacterium.
The New York Daily News described the potential dangers of workplace water coolers: “They may be the quintessential “gathering place,” but they’re also a big threat to staying healthy," says David Fowler, who works for Wellness Enterprises. “Water coolers are a rising concern,” he continued. “Someone has to handle the jug and stick the jug into the cooler itself. And the little spout and the internal mechanism are breeding ground for viruses and bacteria. Plus, people are always shoving their plastic bottles right up to the spout to fill them - and for all you know, some of these people may be coming down with a flu the next day.”
“Whereas microbiological standards exist for bottled water, the same product once installed on a dispenser is generally not regulated and is rarely controlled,” Fowler said. Besides potential contamination when cleaning the jug, many that own a water cooler don't know proper cleaning procedures. “As for the participants in our study, only 44% of those possessing water coolers in residences and 36% of those possessing water coolers in workplaces had been informed of the necessity of cleaning the equipment, let alone how to do it.”
The study concluded, “We should be cognizant of the quality of the water dispensed from water coolers. Although it is possible to manufacture water dispensers which are less likely to become contaminated, vendors and suppliers of water dispensers should impress on their clients the need for regular maintenance of the equipment. In addition, studies determining the health impact of drinking water from dispensers should be undertaken, and public health authorities should be made aware of water dispensers as a possible source of contamination when investigating food- or water-related epidemics.”
In offices, there are an estimated 2.7 million germs on bottled water coolers. One way to limit the amount of germs is by washing the outside of the container regularly with ozonated water. Additionally, washing the inside of the container with ozonated water will oxidize bacteria and other harmful substances.
An alternative that many may use to clean water coolers is vinegar or bleach. This could leave behind a taste in the bottle and create a strong smell in the workplace. Ozone avoids both concerns because it is 3,000 times more effective than bleach and leaves no residual chemical behind.
The use of ozone with water coolers has its own set of benefits. According to WQP, these include:
- Improving taste
- Increasing storage life
- Maintaining a microbe-free environment
- Complying with federal and local health regulations
Consumer Focus recommended to BBC News that the exterior of water coolers should be cleaned once a week. In addition, they said bottle-supplied machines should be cleaned internally every three months, while plumbed-in versions should have their filters changed every six months.
To view our Home and Personal Use products, click here. Interested in units that excel at more than one application? Check out the Multi-Purpose Series here.
It’s no secret that arsenic is extremely toxic to humans. However in 2014, WHO estimated that about 200 million people worldwide are exposed to concentrations exceeding the recommended limit of 10 micrograms per liter of water. Most live in Bangladesh, India, Vietnam, and Nepal, according to Science Magazine.
Drinking water contaminated with arsenic is a large problem around the world, but the United States can also be impacted. The EPA estimates that approximately 13 million people in the United States routinely drink water with more than 10 ppb of arsenic.
According to the Water Quality Association, “Higher levels of arsenic tend to be found more in ground water sources than in surface water sources (lakes and rivers) of drinking water. Compared to the rest of the United States, the western states have more water systems with arsenic levels greater than 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L, ppb). Parts of Midwest, New England, and Texas have some systems whose current arsenic levels are greater than 10 µg/L (or ppb).”
Since those who depend on well water in the United States will be accessing groundwater, well users must also be vigilant with arsenic levels. Private well owners are solely responsible for the quality of their drinking water. The EPA does not regulate private wells and well owners must do their own testing to determine water quality.
Drinking water contaminated with arsenic can have many adverse health effects. The Water Quality Association reports serious skin problems, endocrine disruption, cancer (skin, bladder, lung, kidney, liver, prostate) and harm to the cardiovascular & nervous systems can result. Ingestion of as little as 100 milligrams (mg) can result in severe poisoning to humans. While arsenic levels found in groundwater are typically much lower, it’s important to have water treatment methods that can remove the chemical to limit long-term exposure.
There are typically two species of arsenic in drinking water: arsenic III and arsenic V. A report from UMass Amherst on healthy drinking water says,“The numbers III and V describe the valence of the arsenic in the molecule when the arsenic compound is dissolved in water. This dissolved form of an element or compound in water is called an “ion.” The form of the arsenic, III or V, is very important relative to the effectiveness of many treatment methods. Arsenic V is generally much easier to remove from water than arsenic III.”
Effective ways to convert arsenic III to arsenic V will ease the water treatment process. A study at the University of Houston by Dr. Dennis Clifford and Ganesh Ghurye examined the effectiveness of seven oxidants for converting arsenic III to arsenic V. They choose to study the effectiveness of chlorine, permanganate, ozone, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and Filox, a manganese-oxide-based solid.
It’s important to keep in mind the EPA has standards for the levels of arsenic in drinking water. The MCL (Maximum Contaminant Level) is 0.010 mg/L (or ppm) while the MCLG (Maximum Contaminant Level Goal) is zero.
The scientists concluded that chlorine successfully oxidized As III to As V under all the conditions tested. Iron (0.3 and 3 mg/L) and manganese (0.2 mg/L) had little, if any, effect on As III oxidation. Although sulfide (1.0 and 2.0 mg/L) slowed As III oxidation by chlorine, complete oxidation still was obtained in less than one minute.
Ozone was extremely effective at As III oxidation; complete oxidation was achieved in less than 15 seconds. No adverse effect was observed in the presence of either dissolved manganese or dissolved iron, but sulfide slowed As III oxidation considerably.
A2Z Ozone designs and manufactures ozone generators to fit a variety of applications. The Industrial Series is heavy-duty and designed for continuous ozone output in water treatment facilities. To learn more about the Industrial Series, click here.
We're back from Dubai!
We got to meet people from all over. A2Z Ozone was well accepted and we met a large variety of people from different cultures. The vendors, about 500, were from all over the world with an interesting showing of products, mostly supplies for pools and spas. A2Z Ozone was able to provide visitors with products that provide potable water, as well as air ozone generators and swimming pool generators. One customer was so impressed with the ability for ozone to clean drinking water: "..that's amazing! You mean it would clean the water so we could drink it?" We also shared our A7K Air Ozone Generator with visitors.
And don't forget the scenery — the city is absolutely beautiful with attractions for every type of visitor. The city is particularly vibrant at night; we saw beautiful buildings lit up in fantastic colors, and wonderful fountains with incredible displays. Yes, The Leisure Show at Dubai World Trade Centre was a great experience for A2Z Ozone — especially because we met present and future customers face-to-face — a rare treat for a successful eCommerce business. Now, it's time to get back to work in Louisville, Kentucky!
Lovely Home on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
Have you ever considered what life would be like without potable water? A2Z Ozone, Inc. may have a solution for you. Recently, we at A2Z Ozone, Inc. heard from James whose family lives in a lovely home on wooded land on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. But water was an issue. “Our initial concern was tea-colored well water,” James tells A2Z Ozone. Not only did the water from the well run tea-colored; upon analysis, James said it contained a high content of bacteria, tannins, and manganese with a PH level of 6.8.
James took action to care for his family and his dog, cat, bird, and two horses by resolving to fix the water issues. First, he chlorinated the well and water piping in the house, then drained and flushed the hot water tank. He ordered an MP-3000 Ozone Generator from A2Z Ozone, Inc. In an effort to conserve water, James upgraded the three toilets in the home to dual flush 0.8/1.28 gallon per flush toilets. He also installed both a Maytag Energy Star Certified washing machine and dishwasher.
A2Z Ozone, Inc.'s MP-3000 at work
The power of an ozone generator
The MP-3000 Ozone Generator is an excellent choice for the project James undertook. It gives up to 3 grams of ozone per hour. Considered a heavy-duty ozone generator, one of the MP-3000’s typical uses is for water sanitizing. It is known for removing bad tastes, chemicals, and the colors caused by the manganese in water. The results are phenomenal. As James put it, “…with the ozone treatment we now have sanitary, crystal clear water.” James is relieved to see pure water coming out of his faucets. He says this system provides water for washing vehicles and watering plants. He has even filled a swimming pool and a fish pond.
James Enjoying Time with His Horse
Technical specifications of the system
James kindly provided us with the technical specs: He connected the MP-3000 Ozone Generator to an ozone-resistant air injector (Waterite W988Z Micronizer) upstream of a 40 gallon degasser tank (the Duro 33155 FLS40D Flexpro Tank). Connected to the degasser tank are a multimedia filter (the Duro 4111 WGULTRAMF100) and an activated carbon filter with PH increase (the Duro 4913 CAN-15). Where does the excess ozone go? It is vented outside by an automatic vent valve provided by Honeywell Braukmann Q122A1001. Altogether, James spent approximately $2000 on the equipment for the project, not including the cost of a pressure tank and pump that were already in place.
Schematic Drawing of the Entire System
The Entire System
The Water Pump Control Box
Now, you can take action, too!
If you wish to install an MP-3000 Ozone Generator like this for your home and want some advice, call us at 502-499-4977 and talk with our technician. We are available Monday through Friday, 8:00 am to 4:00 pm (Eastern Standard Time).
Written By: Hannah Black
Happy Friday Everyone!
During our last blog, we touched a little bit on what exactly Ozone was and what benefits it can give you! This week, we wanted to elaborate a little more on what others are using Ozone for and how it can be beneficial for health and other purposes!
Fruits and Vegetables!
When I first started working at A2Z Ozone, I decided to research what others used their Ozone Generators for. I found that many people used it for cleaning/washing their fruits, vegetables, and meat! According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Ozone can help with the shelf life of fruits when they are treated with Ozonated water. Here is what they found:
Treatment with ozonated water can extend the shelf life of apples, grapes, oranges, pears, raspberries, and strawberries by reducing microbial populations and by oxidation of ethylene to retard ripening (Beuchat 1998) (FDA, December 2014).
If you need to see it to believe it, here is what TheOzoneMan showed from washing his fruits and vegetables with Ozonated Water!
Another great way Ozone can be used is for dental hygiene! According to Chris Kammer, DDS, dentists are turning to Ozone to help with the following:
Estimates are that many hundreds of dentists in the U.S. are now treating patients with ozone, utilizing it in a wide variety of areas including periodontal therapy, decay therapy with remineralization of early lesions, root canal treatment, tooth sensitivity, canker sores, cold sores, bone infections, and more. (Chris Kammer, DDS, n.d).
Many of our customers who are seeking to use Ozone for their dental hygiene needs are turning to our Aqua 6 Multi-Purpose Ozone Generator. This unit is capable of ozonating water for purposes like:
- Cleaning/Sterilizing toothbrushes
(Aqua 6 Multi-Purpose Ozone Generator)
One of the most popular uses of Ozone is for the removal of bad odors. Ozone is considered an oxidizer. It attaches an oxygen atom to neutralize those pesky odors that linger. To help with the removal of odors, we have a unit called the A7K Air Ozone Generator that can do the job! The best thing about this unit is that it is portable and can be used in a variety of settings such as:
- Kitchen (A7K Air Ozone Generator)
- Doctor/Dental Offices
Ozone can remove a variety of smells such as mold/mildew, smoke, pet odors, kitchen smells, chemical smells, and so much more! Many of our customers could tell a difference after just one use from this unit!
While we have only scratched the surface of the benefits of Ozone, we encourage you to continue to research more and see how others are using it! If you have any questions, feel free to send me an email! I would love to connect with you and answer any and all questions or hear your thoughts!
firstname.lastname@example.org - That’s me! (Hannah)
Make sure you check back next week! Two of our co-workers are checking out Sensory Deprivation Chambers and are going to let you know how the experience went! We can’t wait to share it with you guys!
Have a Great Weekend!
U.S Food and Drug Administration: Chapter V. Methods to Reduce/Eliminate Pathogens from Produce and Fresh-Cut Produce; December 16th, 2014
The Ozone Man: Ozone vs. Chlorine: Disinfection Effectiveness (n.d.) (Image)
Dental Economics: Dental ozone: The revolution is happening here! Chris Kammer, DDS (n.d.)
A2Z Ozone Inc. – Aqua 6 Multi-Purpose Ozone Generator & A7K Air Ozone Generator
(Photo Credit: The Charlie Foundation)
Let’s face it… the older we get, the more and more we start to notice changes in our bodies. But most especially, in our skin! Fine lines, wrinkles, and dry skin. OH MY! So, it’s pretty common for us to spend $30-$40 dollars on a cream each month that what we think is going to make us look younger. But what if I told you that you didn’t have to spend that $30-$40 dollars each month?! What if I told you that you could make your own miracle cream and save yourself money? Too good to be true? Wrong! It is entirely possible and the benefits are amazing!
Ozonated Olive Oil is a product that is really taking off! It has a million different uses! Here are some of the uses and what our customers have used it for:
||Skin Detoxify and Healthy Glow
||Improves Skin Tone
||Sweat Gland Infections
|Hair follicle infections
Wow! That is a lot of different uses for one kind of cream!
Curious how to make it? Well, when we were making it in-store, we used our S-32 G and paired that with an Oxygen Generator as well. This would produce about 2 gallons for us. But that isn’t the only unit that can be used for making the oil! Our MP-1000 up to our MP-8000 Multi-Purpose Ozone Generator can be used to make Ozonated Olive Oil.
Here is a chart on how long it will take for each unit to make the salve or Ozonated Olive Oil:
||3-4 days (salve)
||2-3 days (salve)
||2-3 days (salve)
||2-3 days (salve)
Here is the set-up that one of our customers has when they are making their own Ozonated Olive Oil.
We would be happy to help with any questions that you may have when ordering a unit or making your very own Ozonated Olive Oil! Give us a call at 502-499-4977! Happy Ozonizing!
Resources: The Charlie Foundation, https://www.charliefoundation.org/blog/entry/keto-pantry
By: Hannah Black
I would be lying if I said I didn’t drink tap water. If I am thirsty, I grab a glass and just fill it up from the tap at the sink. It is easy and convenient and when I was growing up, it’s what my parents did too. I don’t believe I ever saw my parents buy bottled water until I was well into my later teen years and almost out of high school. The older I got, the more aware I became of what was really in my tap water. As a kid, I didn’t have to think about that stuff because, let’s face it, when you’re young – you are convinced you are invincible and bad things (like drinking dirty water) doesn’t happen to you. Right? Wrong.
When I first started working at A2Z Ozone, one of the first things I learned about what our units can do is they can kill bacteria and germs that are found in tap water. They can either eliminate these impurities or they cause them to sink.
For example, according to HealthGuidence.org, there are many ways that chemicals and bacteria can get into tap water but one of the main ways is pollution. But that isn’t the only way chemicals get into the water. HealthGuidence.org says,
Other ways are when chemicals are added to the water by the public water systems. The most common of these chemicals is chlorine. Chlorine is the most common of the types of chemicals currently being used to treat public water supplies. (Wagner, Jamey, N.D.)
I don’t know about you…but when I hear the world chlorine, I think of swimming pools. I’m sure the water is circulated and cleaned because obviously, most people can’t taste the chlorine that is in the water. However, I just don’t like the idea of drinking chlorine at all, no matter how diluted.
Another way impurities get into tap water is through the pipes that carry the water into our homes. One of the biggest impurities is lead. If you aren’t sure what lead is, it is a “chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb and atomic number 82. It is a soft, malleable and heavy post-transition metal.” (Wikipedia).
Lead can cause a lot of issues if too much is ingested. It can be especially dangerous for pregnant women and children. Referring back to HealthGuidence.Org, “Lead poisoning has been proven to cause learning disorders and severe developmental delays.” (Wagner, Jamey, N.D.).
While not everyone is affected by these impurities, there are ways to reduce your risk of having any of these in your drinking water. That is where A2Z Ozone comes in to help!
One of our best selling items is our Aqua 6 Multi-Purpose Ozone Generator. This unit is great for usage in the home or in the office. It is light-weight, durable, and easy to use. It is equipped with tubing and a diffuser stone and that is what will you will use to deliver the ozone to the water and to clean it. When you drop the diffuser stone into the water and choose the setting you want (see chart below), the water will begin bubbling and you will notice a slight, pleasant odor. This is ozone. What is happening inside your glass of water is the process of ozonating. The ozone coming from the tubing and diffuser stone is grabbing onto the impurities inside your water and killing them. If there are heavier impurities in your water like lead, we recommend using one of our stronger units like our MP Series. This unit will grab onto the heavy impurities and sink them to the bottom. With a separate filtration system and by skimming the water off the top, this would make for healthy and clean drinking water.
In one example of how our MP Series has been used, I would like to refer to the Kingdom of Tonga. Several years ago, Kingdom of Tonga and the islands of Ha'apai were hit by a series of earthquakes that caused widespread pollution of their water supply.
In CRI Tonga in partnership with Omni Services Tonga started using A2Z Ozone MP - 8000 Ozone Generators in their cleanup and the results were quite encouraging. The water was cleaned up and restored to the World Health Organization guidelines. In the photo, you can see our unit being used in the efforts to help clean up the fresh water supply. If you would like to see the results of independent testing done by the workers in Ha'apai, the link will be included in our sources list.
If you want to get your water sparkling clean but you aren’t sure what unit you would need, please give us a call. We will help you get on your way to cleaner water and healthier living. Ozone truly is nature's very own disinfectant. It has the power to clean the one thing that we all need most…water. Without it, we would be nowhere.
Do you truly know what is in your water?
Water Photo: http://www.imgwide.com/image/water-pictures-free/water-pouring-into-glass
Health Guidance, What Chemicals Are in Tap Water? (Wagner, Jamey. N.d.)
Independent Testing Results from Ha’apai
What Is Lead
Freshly Squeezed Water, What’s In Your Water (n.d.)
Need some reasons to switch your pool or spa to ozonated water? We have a few.
Experience clean, clear water in your pool or spa.
Ahh, the feeling of swimming in clean, ozonated water cannot compare to swimming in chlorine. It’s the closest thing to a pool of water in nature you can find. Nature! A natural solution to chlorine awaits you!
You reduce the use of chlorine or bromine in your pool or spa by 90% - 95%.
Now most people are trying to reduce their dependence on chemicals for daily consumption, whether it is in household cleaning or our yards. We want to keep chemicals off our bodies as well. Now you can reduce chemicals in your pool and spa by 90% - 95%.
Excessive chlorine is known to dry out your skin and hair.
Ozonated water keeps your skin feeling smooth and does not dry out your hair. In fact, many people use ozonated water in the bath to treat their hair and skin for this reason.
Be rid of itchy eyes.
We have all opened our eyes by accident in a chlorinated pool, only to feel a smart stinging sensation. This feeling can only be stopped by staying out of chlorinated water!
Rid your lounging area of the strong smell of chlorine.
Sitting around the pool is a fun pastime for many people. While drinking your favorite iced tea or homemade lemonade, do you really want to be smelling the chlorine coming out of the pool, or do you want to smell the freshness of ozonated water? Or, say, you are sitting in your spa drinking your favorite beverage. Really, do you want to smell the chlorine? Probably not, even though you may be used to it.
Our customers say it best: “What an amazing difference this ozone generator has made in our spa. The water is always crystal clear and feels super clean. No odor, no scum, no problems. It was easy to install and comes on twice a day with pump. I highly recommend this product.” Submitted to our website by our customer, C. A.
A2Z Ozone has ozone generators to meet your needs. Please take a look at our reasonably priced ozone generators for the spa and pool today!
Of all the food we eat, fish is considered one of the most nutritious. Yet, it is delicate. It does not last long or travel far from the water source before it spoils. Can you imagine what a couple of more days of shelf life would do for the fish industry? That is exactly what ozone can do for fish.
Increasing shelf life of fish
In a study done by the World Academy of Science, “Extension of Fish Shelf Life by Ozone Treatment,” scientists treated trout for two hours and were able to increase the shelf life from four to six days. The fish were kept at 41º F (or 5º C). In this process, while bacteria and viruses grew slower, the taste of the fish was not impaired. If you’ve been following ozone related topics, by now you probably already can guess that ozone is able to do this because it kills bacterial spores and viruses that cause decay and then reverts back to oxygen.
What are the benefits of using ozone for fish?
While more studies need to be done on the benefits of ozone for fish, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearly states in a report on methods to reduce/eliminate pathogens from produce that “…bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, Y. enterocolitica, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes are sensitive to treatment with 20 ppm ozone in water…” Also, fish storage is improved upon by use of ozone. The FDA says: “…In contrast to the use of ozone as an initial treatment to reduce microbial populations on produce surfaces, ozone gas has also been investigated for use during storage of various foods, including fish…” Did you know, there is a secondary effect—it removes the fishy odor!
How do you ozonate fish?
As of yet, no official guidelines are in place for ozonation of fish. However, A2Z Ozone, Inc. recommends in our Aqua-6 Operating Manual (Page 8) to treat meat (as well as fish) as you would vegetables—fill your large glass bowl or sink with water, place the diffuser stone 2 to 4 inches deep in the water and operate for 15 minutes (Function #4).
Is there a place for ozone in a fish hatchery or fish farm?
A fish hatchery breeds fish for the purpose of restocking lakes and streams that have been overfished. Fish farms raise fish for human consumption. One of the biggest problems that fish hatcheries and fish farms come across is keeping the hatchery clean. Methods that allow them to do this involve chlorine and other chemicals that cause nitrous oxides to be released. That’s where ozone steps in. Ozone is a chemical-free way to help fish hatcheries supply the oxidizing agents needed without affecting the oxygen supply of the fish. At a hatchery, there is a complex filtering system in place to screen out course solids but it does little for the smaller substances (colloidal) which can float alongside the fish. Nitrate levels that can hurt fish are not put into check as easily, though, and require chemicals to control. And organic compounds that cause the water to appear cloudy are often seen in a hatchery. Ozone can reduce fish disease and stress (according to experts at the Freshwater Institute, Shepherdstown, West Virginia). And don’t forget the germs! While both fish farms and hatcheries can get the benefits of ozonation of the water, they need to use caution because at high levels, ozone can be harmful.
Meet our fish!
I am pleased to introduce you to Charlie Brown, our gold twinbar platy; Snoopy, our glowlight tetra; Linus, our dwarf gourami; and Lucy, our bala shark; Schroeder, our julii cory; and Peppermint Patty, our rainbow shark.
Photo of the fish tank at A2Z Ozone, Inc.
At A2Z Ozone, Inc., we have been experimenting with a 55-gallon fish tank on-site. We started off two months ago with bait fish and graduated to the Peanuts gang when we were confident we had the settings right for these freshwater fish. We use A2Z Ozone’s Aqua-6 Multi Purpose Ozone Generator set on timer function 9—operating for 15 minutes every hour, repeating the cycle every hour—to clean the tank. The members of the Peanuts gang were not in perfect health when we received them—some had fin clamp, were skinny and spotty. The ozone not only produces a clean environment for the fish, it has healed their ailments. I am happy to report that our fish are active, healthy and behave wonderfully. Maybe what we appreciate most is there is no fishy smell to the fish tank—that fish odor even the cleanest of fish tanks brings into a home or office setting. In the two months we’ve had the tank, there has been some need to clean algae growing in the tank, but in these past several weeks our algae problem has also diminished. Join in the fun! Set up your own experimental fish tank. Try the Aqua-6 Multi Purpose Ozone Generator today!
A2Z Ozone, Inc.'s Aqua-6 Multi Purpose Ozone Generator
Increasing Fish Shelf Life
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 62 2010. Extension of Fish Shelf Life by Ozone Treatment. Behrouz Mosayebi Dehkordi, Neda Zokaie. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.184.9701&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Sanitizing the Fish We Eat
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Safe Practices for Food Processes. Chapter V. Methods to reduce/Eliminate Pathogens from Produce and Fresh-Cut Produce. http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/SafePracticesforFoodProcesses/ucm091363.htm
Ozonation and UV Disinfection. Steven Summerfelt & Brian Vinci. Freshwater Institute, Shepherdstown, West Virginia. https://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/ista/ISTA7/RecircWorkshop/Workshop%20PP%20%20&%20Misc%20Papers%20Adobe%202006/9%20Ozone%20&%20UV/Ozonation%20UV%20Disinfection.pdf
NSW Department of Primary Industries Fishing and Aquaculture. Ozone in Recirculating Aquaculture.